THE GODDESS EPISODES: Part 3 – Who is Devi Durga? | NĀMARŪPA

 

Devi Durga is known as the Invincible One, the Mother of the Universe. She is the representation of courage, strength, ethics and protection. She is the destroyer of sin and evil and the savior of morality and ethics. Goddess Durga is a form of divine power— Shakti—and is the confluence of the power, beauty and intelligence of Maha Lakshmi, Maha Saraswati and Maha Kali. She possesses the powers of all the male gods in her celestial weapons. She is regarded as the Ultimate Deity. Ma Durga has many incarnations: Kali, Bhaga- vati, Bhavani, Ambika, Lalita, Gauri, Kundalini, Jaya, Rajeswari, et al. Her nine forms, or Navadurgas, are Skondamata, Kusumanda, Shailaputri, Kalratri, Brahmacharini, Maha Gauri, Katyayani, Chandraghanta and Siddhidatri. According to the scriptures, Lord Shiva called Ma Durga by 108 names in order to please her. Each name represents a quality that she possesses. These names appear in the Devi Mahatmya (The Glory of the Goddess) that narrates the story of Goddess Durga’s battle and victory over the demon king Mahishasura. Composed around 400–500 C.E. in Sanskrit by the ancient Indian sage Markandeya, this Hindu scripture is also known as the Durga Saptashat or simply the Chandi Path.

 

Photograph of the goddesses (Durga) in Mul chowk, Patan Durbar Square, Nepal.

108 Names of Ma Durga from Devi Mahatmya
(Chandi Path)

1. Adya
The primordial reality
2. Arya
The Goddess
3. Abhavya
The fearful Goddess
4. Aeindri
The one who is power of Lord Indra
5. Agnijwala
The one who is capable of spewing fire
6. Ahankara
The one who is full of pride
7. Ameya
The one who is beyond any measure
8. Ananta
The one who is infinite and immeasurable
9. Aja
The one who has no birth
10. Anekashastrahasta
The possessor of a many weaponed hand
11. Anekastradharini
The one who holds multiple weapons
12. Anekavarna
The one who has multiple complexions
13. Aparna
The one who abstains from eating even leaves while fasting
14. Apraudha
The one who never ages
15. Bahula
The one who has diverse forms and manifestations
16. BahulapremaPhotograph of the goddesses (Durga) in Mul chowk, Patan Durbar Square, Nepal.
The one who is loved by all
17. Balaprada
The giver of strength
18. Bhavini
The beautiful one
19. Bhavya
The one who stands for the future
20. Bhadrakali
The gentle form of Goddess Kali
21. Bhavani
The mother of the universe
22. Bhavamochani
The one who is the liberator of the universe
23. Bhavaprita
The one who is adored by the entire universe
24. Bhavya
The one who has magnificence
25. Brahmi
The one who has the power of Lord Brahma
26. Brahmavadini
The one who is omnipresent
27. Buddhi
The embodiment of intelligence
28. Buddhida
The one who bestows wisdom
29. Chamunda
The killer of the demons called Chanda and Munda
30. Chandi
The fearful form of Durga
31. Chandraghanta
The one who has mighty bells
32. Chinta
The one who takes care of tensionPhotograph of the goddesses (Durga) in Mul chowk, Patan Durbar Square, Nepal.
33. Chita
The one who prepares the death-bed
34. Chiti
The one who has a mind that thinks
35. Chitra
The one with the quality of being picturesque
36. Chittarupa
The one who is in a state of thought
37. Dakshakanya
The one known to be the daughter of Daksha
38. Dakshayagnavinashini
The one who interrupts the sacrifice of Daksha
39. Devamata
The one who is known as the Mother Goddess
40. Durga
The one who is unconquerable
41. Ekakanya
The one who is known to be the girl child
42. Ghorarupa
The one who has an aggressive outlook
43. Gyana
The one who is the embodiment of knowledge
44. Jalodari
The one who is the abode of the ethereal universe
45. Jaya
The one who emerges as the victorious
46. Kalaratri
The Goddess who is black like night
47. Kaishori
The one who is an adolescent
48. Kalamanjiiraranjini
The one who wears a musical anklet
49. KaraliPhotograph of the goddesses (Durga) in Mul chowk, Patan Durbar Square, Nepal.
The one who is violent
50. Katyayani
The one who is worshiped by sage Katyayan
51. Kaumari
The one who is an adolescent
52. Komari
The one known to be a beautiful adolescent
53. Kriya
The one who is in action
54. Kroora
The one who is murderous on demons
55. Lakshmi
The Goddess of Wealth
56. Maheshwari
The one who possesses the power of Lord Mahesha
57. Matangi
The Goddess of Matanga
58. Madhukaitabhahantri
The one who killed the demon duo Madhu and Kaitabha
59. Mahabala
The one who has immense strength
60. Mahatapa
The one with severe penance
61. Mahishasuramardini
The destroyer of the bull-demon Mahishasura
62. Mahodari
The one who has a huge belly which stores the universe
63. Manah
The one with a mind
64. Matangamunipujita
The one who is worshiped by the Sage Matanga
65. Muktakesha
The one who flaunts open tressesPhotograph of the goddesses (Durga) in Mul chowk, Patan Durbar Square, Nepal.
66. Narayani
The one known to be the destructive aspect of Lord Narayana
67. Nishumbhashumbhahanani
The killer of the demon brothers Shumbha and Nishumbha
68. Nitya
The one known as the Eternal
69. Patala
The one with the color red
70. Patalavati
The one who is clothed in red
71. Parameshvari
The one known as the Ultimate Goddess
72. Pattambaraparidhana
The one who wears a dress made out of leather
73. Pinakadharini
The one who holds the trident of Shiva
74. Pratyaksha
The one who is original
75. Praudha
The one who is old
76. Purushakriti
The one who takes the shape of a man
77. Ratnapriya
The one who is adorned or loved by jewels
78. Raudramukhi
The one who has a frightening face like the destroyer Rudra
79. Sadhvi
The one who is self-confident
80. Sadagati
The one who is always in motion, bestowing Moksha (salvation)
81. Sarvastradharini
The one who possesses all the missile weaponsPhotograph of the goddesses (Durga) in Mul chowk, Patan Durbar Square, Nepal.
82. Sarvadanavaghatini
The one who possesses the power to kill all the demons83. Sarvamantramayi
The one who possesses all the instruments of thought
84. Sarvashastramayi
The one who is skillful in all theories
85. Sarvasuravinasha
The one who is the destroyer of all demons
86. Sarvavahanavahana
The one who rides all vehicles
87. Sarvavidya
The one who is knowledgeable
88. Sati
The one who got burned alive
89. Satta
The one who is above all beings
90. Satya
The one who resembles truth
91. Satyanandasvarupini
The one who has the form of eternal bliss
92. Savitri
The one who is the daughter of the Sun God Savitr
93. Shambhavi
The one who is the companion of Shambhu
94. Shivadooti
The one who has Lord Shiva as her ambassador
95. Shooldharini
The one who holds a monodent
96. Sundari
The one who is gorgeous
97. Sursundari
The one who is extremely beautifulPhotograph of the goddesses (Durga) in Mul chowk, Patan Durbar Square, Nepal.
98. TapasviniThe one who is engaged in penance
99. Trinetra
The one who has three-eyes
100. Varahi
The one who rides on Varaha
101. Vaishnavi
The one who is invincible
102. Vandurga
The one known as the Goddess of Forests
103. Vikrama
The one who is violent
104. Vimalauttkarshini
The one who provides joy
105. Vishnumaya
The one who is the charm of Lord Vishnu
106. Vriddhamata
The one known as the old mother
107. Yati
The one who renounces the world or the ascetic
108. Yuvati
The one who is a young woman

 

Cover image, Doorway to the Taleju Bhawani Temple in Mul Chowk, Patan Durbar Square.  Images above, representations of Durga on hand-carved lintels in Mul Chowk. © Heather Elton

Read Part Four of The Goddess Episodes, THE CELESTIAL WEAPONS OF DURGA.

No Comments

Post a Comment